Numerical Framework for Wind Energy Applications

The high-fidelity numerical framework for fluid-structure interaction (FSI) and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) combines stabilized and multi-scale techniques for fluid mechanics, advanced structural modeling based on Isogeometric Analysis (IGA)  and novel mesh moving techniques. The framework addresses challenges associated with large Reynolds number turbulent atmospheric flows in complex domains, presence of the components in relative motion (rotor-tower interaction) superimposed on elastic deformation of blades, complex multi-physics coupling, geometric and material nonlinearity of the multilayer composite blades and large problem size.

Aerodynamic simulation of multiple HAWT: the flow field is visualized by vorticity isosurfaces colored by velocity magnitude.

The methods and computer codes developed are now used to perform advanced CFD and FSI simulations of multiple wind turbines, including both horizontal- and vertical-axis designs, at full-scale with full geometric and material complexity operating in realistic flow conditions. The framework was also applied to perform first-of-its-kind 3D, time-dependent, FSI simulation of large-scale floating wind turbine. This includes wave modeling, complex structural design with mooring cables and air-wave-structure interaction. The proposed novel numerical framework can improve design and optimization process of wind turbines and  prevent failure of main turbine components by  providing high-fidelity outputs for quantities of interest for which measurements are not readily available.

Aerodynamic simulation of multiple vertical-axis wind turbines (VAWT). From left to right:  Vorticity isosurfaces colored by the velocity magnitude for FSI simulation of Windspire VAWT; Windspire VAWTs at Field Laboratory for Optimized Wind Energy (FLOWE), Professor J. Dabiri; Vorticity isosurfaces colored by the velocity magnitude for CFD simulation of multiple Darrieus-type VAWT

Computational free-surface FSI simulation of full-scaled floating wind turbine in parked condition with full geometric complexity, including spar buoy, mooring cables, main shaft, tower, nacelle and fully-resolved rotor.


  1. M.Ravensbergen, A.Bayram, A.Korobenko The actuator line method for wind turbine modelling applied in a variational multiscale frameworkComputers & Fluids, 201, 104465, 2020

  2. K.Takizawa, Y.Bazilevs, T.E.Tezduyar, A.Korobenko Computational Flow Analysis in Aerospace, Energy and Transportation Technologies with the Variational Multiscale MethodsJournal of Advanced Engineering and Computation, 4(2), 83-117, 2020

  3. A.Korobenko, Y.Bazilevs, K.Takizawa, T.E.Tezduyar Computer modeling of wind turbines: 1. ALE-VMS and ST-VMS aerodynamic and FSI analysisArchives of Computational Methods in Engineering, 26(4), 1059-1099, 2020

  4. Y.Bazilevs, J.Yan, X.Deng, A.Korobenko Computer Modeling of Wind Turbines: 2. Free-Surface FSI and Fatigue-DamageArchives of Computational Methods in Engineering, 26(4), 1101-1115, 2020

  5. A.Korobenko, J.Yan, S.M.I.Gohari, S.Sarkar, Y.Bazilevs FSI Simulations of Multiple Horizontal-Axis Wind Turbines Interacting with Atmospheric Boundary Layer FlowComputers & Fluids,158, 167-175, 2017

  6. J.Yan, A.Korobenko, X.Deng, Y.Bazilevs Computational free-surface fluid-structure interaction with application to offshore floating wind turbinesComputers & Fluids, 141, 155-174, 2016

  7. Y.Bazilevs, A.Korobenko, X.Deng, J.Yan Dynamically-Coupled Fluid-Structure Interaction and Isogeometric Damage Model for Fatigue Prediction in Full-Scale Wind TurbinesJournal of Applied Mechanics, 2016, 83(6), 061010

  8. Y.Bazilevs, A.Korobenko, X.Deng, J.Yan, M.Kinzel, J.O.Dabiri FSI Modeling of Vertical- Axis Wind TurbinesJournal of Applied Mechanics, 81(8), 2014

  9. Y.Bazilevs, A.Korobenko, X.Deng, J.Yan Novel Structural Modeling and Mesh Moving Techniques for Advanced FSI Simulation of Wind TurbinesInternational Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, 102(3-4), 766-783, 2014

  10. A.Korobenko, M.-C.Hsu, I.Akkerman, Y.Bazilevs Aerodynamic simulation of vertical-axis wind turbines, Journal of Applied Mechanics, 81(2), 021011, 2013

  11. A.Korobenko, M.-C.Hsu, I.Akkerman, J.Tippmann, Y.Bazilevs Structural mechanics modeling and FSI simulation of wind turbinesMathematical Models and Methods in Applied Science, 23, 249-272, 2013